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步进及无刷直流电机特点和控制

来源:/ 发布时间:2019-12-03 浏览:
  小编整理了步进电机和无刷直流电机的一些内容,主要从电机的性能特点进行一些简单的描述,并些许涉及控制方面的内容。
山东微型电机,山东无刷电机
  Some contents of stepping motor and BLDCM are sorted out in this paper, mainly from the performance characteristics of the motor to make some simple description, and some related to the control.
  步进电机
  Stepper motor
  步进电机可以作为一种控制用的特种电机,利用其没有积累误差的特点,广泛应用于各种开环控制。一般步进电机的精度为步进角的3-5%,且不累积。步进电机力矩会随转速的升高而下降。步进电机低速时可以正常运转,但若高于一定速度就无法启动,并伴有啸叫声。
  Stepping motor can be used as a special motor for control. It has no accumulated error and is widely used in various open-loop control. Generally, the accuracy of stepping motor is 3-5% of stepping angle, and does not accumulate. The torque of stepping motor will decrease with the increase of rotating speed. The stepper motor can operate normally at low speed, but it can not be started if it is higher than a certain speed, accompanied by a howl.
  当步进驱动器接收到一个脉冲信号,它就驱动步进电机按设定的方向转动一个固定的角度,称为“步距角”,它的旋转是以固定的角度一步一步运行的。可以通过控制脉冲个数来控制角位移量,从而达到准确定位的目的;同时可以通过控制脉冲频率来控制电机转动的速度和加速度,从而达到调速的目的。
  When the step driver receives a pulse signal, it drives the step motor to rotate a fixed angle according to the set direction, which is called "step angle". Its rotation is run step by step with a fixed angle. The angular displacement can be controlled by controlling the number of pulses, so as to achieve the purpose of accurate positioning; at the same time, the speed and acceleration of motor rotation can be controlled by controlling the pulse frequency, so as to achieve the purpose of speed regulation.
  步进电机包括反应式、永磁式、混合式和单相式步进电机等。反应式步进电机一般为三相,可实现大转矩输出,步进角一般为1.5度,但噪声和振动都很大。反应式步进电机的转子磁路由软磁材料制成,定子上有多相励磁绕组,利用磁导的变化产生转矩。
  Stepping motor includes reactive, permanent magnet, hybrid and single-phase stepping motor. Reactive stepping motor is generally three-phase, which can achieve large torque output. The stepping angle is generally 1.5 degrees, but the noise and vibration are very large. The rotor magnet of reactive stepping motor is made of soft magnetic material. There are multi-phase excitation windings on the stator. The torque is generated by the change of magnetic conductivity.
  混合式步进电机是指混合了永磁式和反应式的优点。它又分为两相和五相:两相步进角一般为1.8度。而五相步进角一般为0.72度。
  Hybrid stepping motor is a hybrid of the advantages of permanent magnet and reactive. It is divided into two phases and five phases: the step angle of two phases is generally 1.8 degrees. The five phase step angle is generally 0.72 degrees.
  无刷直流电机
  Brushless DC motor
  无刷直流电机具有优秀的线形机械特性、较宽的调速范围、较大的启动转矩,控制方法较简单,利用电子换向替代了机械换向,没有磨损、火花,噪声大大减小等特点。
  BLDCM has excellent linear mechanical characteristics, wide speed range, large starting torque, simple control method, using electronic commutation instead of mechanical commutation, no wear, sparks, noise greatly reduced and so on.
  无刷直流电机由电动机主体和驱动器组成,是一种典型的机电一体化产品。无刷电机是指无电刷和换向器的电机,又称无换向器电机。早在十九纪诞生电机的时候,产生的实用性电机就是无刷形式,即交流鼠笼式异步电动机,这种电动机得到了广泛的应用。但是,异步电动机有许多无法克服的缺陷,以致电机技术发展缓慢。上世纪中叶诞生了晶体管,因而采用晶体管换向电路代替电刷与换向器的直流无刷电机就应运而生了。这种新型无刷电机称为电子换向式直流电机,它克服了第一代无刷电机的缺陷。
  BLDCM is a typical mechatronics product, which is composed of motor body and driver. Brushless motor is a motor without electric brush and commutator, also known as commutator motor. As early as the 19th century when the motor was born, the practical motor is the brushless form, that is, the AC squirrel cage asynchronous motor, which has been widely used. However, there are many insurmountable defects in asynchronous motor, so the development of motor technology is slow. In the middle of the last century, the transistor was born, so the DC brushless motor using transistor commutation circuit instead of brush and commutator came into being. This new type of BLDCM is called electronic reversing DC motor, which overcomes the defects of the first generation of BLDCM.
  无刷直流电机的定子绕组多做成三相对称星形接法,同三相异步电动机十分相似。电动机的转子上有已充磁的永磁体 ,为了检测电动机转子的极性,在电动机内装有位置传感器。驱动器由功率电子器件和集成电路等构成,其功能是接受电动机的启动、停止、制动信号,以控制电动机的启动、停止和制动;接受位置传感器信号和正反转信号,用来控制逆变桥各功率管的通断,产生连续转矩;接受速度指令和速度反馈信号,用来控制和调整转速;提供保护和显示等等。
  The stator winding of BLDCM is usually made of three-phase symmetrical star connection, which is very similar to three-phase asynchronous motor. In order to detect the polarity of the motor rotor, a position sensor is installed in the motor. The driver is composed of power electronic devices and integrated circuits. Its function is to receive the start, stop and brake signals of the motor, to control the start, stop and brake of the motor; to receive the position sensor signals and the positive and negative reversal signals, to control the on-off of each power tube of the inverter bridge, to generate continuous torque; to receive the speed command and speed feedback signals, to control and adjust the rotation Speed; provide protection and display, etc.
  直流电机具有响应快速、较大的起动转矩、从零转速至额定转速具备可提供额定转矩的性能,但直流电机的优点也正是它的缺点,因为直流电机要产生额定负载下恒定转矩的性能,则电枢磁场与转子磁场须恒维持90°,这就要经过碳刷及整流子。碳刷及整流子在电机转动时会产生火花、碳粉因此除了会造成组件损坏之外,使用场合也受到限制。
  DC motor has fast response, large starting torque, and the performance of providing rated torque from zero speed to rated speed. However, the advantages of DC motor are its disadvantages, because if DC motor wants to produce the performance of constant torque under rated load, the armature field and rotor field must be maintained at 90 ° constantly, which requires carbon brush and commutator. The carbon brush and commutator will produce sparks and carbon powder when the motor is rotating, which will not only cause damage to the components, but also limit the use occasions.
  交流电机没有碳刷及整流子,免维护、坚固、应用广,但特性上若要达到相当于直流电机的性能须用复杂控制技术才能达到。现今半导体发展迅速功率组件切换频率加快许多,提升驱动电机的性能。微处理机速度亦越来越快,可实现将交流电机控制置于一旋转的两轴直角坐标系统中,适当控制交流电机在两轴电流分量,达到类似直流电机控制并有与直流电机相当的性能。
  There is no carbon brush and commutator in AC motor, which is maintenance free, robust and widely used. However, to achieve the performance equivalent to that of DC motor, complex control technology must be used. Nowadays, with the rapid development of semiconductor, the switching frequency of power components is much faster and the performance of drive motor is improved. The speed of microprocessor is also faster and faster. It can realize the control of AC motor in a rotating two axis rectangular coordinate system, and properly control the current component of AC motor in two axes, so as to achieve similar DC motor control and have the same performance as DC motor.
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